Monday, September 21, 2009

Googleの本販売を米司法が却下

Daily Telegraph:Reject Google book deal - US justice
From correspondents in Washington From: AFP September 19, 2009 6:28PM

Googleと著者と出版社が,膨大な量の本をスキャンしオンライン販売をする為の合意に対し,
米司法は拒絶した.

THE US Justice Department has advised a court to reject a legal settlement between Google and authors and publishers that would allow the internet giant to scan and sell millions of books online.

法務省は,昨日ニューヨーク地方裁において,この合意は著作法と独占禁止法に触れると言及した.
しかし,議論を続けそれらの関係を明確にするとのこと.

The Justice Department, in a filing late yesterday with a US District Court in New York, said the class action settlement raises copyright and anti-trust issues, but it encouraged the parties to continue their discussions to address its concerns.

裁判官Denny Chinは10/7に聴聞会を開く.
2005年にGoogleと著者と米出版協会が著作権法違反と訴えられた問題についてだ.

US District Court Judge Denny Chin is to hold a hearing on October 7 on the class action settlement reached in October between Google and the Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers to a copyright infringement suit they filed against the Mountain View, California, company in 2005.

この合意を実現するために,
Googleは1億4320万ドルを独立法人のBook Rights Registryに支払う事を合意した.
この法人は売り上げと広告から著者に収入を還元する団体だ.

Under the settlement, Google agreed to pay $US125 million ($143.2 million) to resolve outstanding claims and establish an independent “Book Rights Registry,” which would provide revenue from sales and advertising to authors and publishers who agree to digitise their books.

Googleの敵であるmicrosoft, Amazon, Yahooは,
フランスとドイツの判決,秘密保持の支持者,消費者団体と共にこの合意に反対した.

Google rivals Microsoft, Amazon and Yahoo! have filed objections to the settlement with the court along with the French and German governments, privacy advocates and consumer watchdog groups.

日本のSONYは,電子ブックリーダーのSony Readerのメーカーだ.
その他32人の法律,経済学の教授も一緒に,この合意を支持する声明を出した.

Sony Electronics of Japan, maker of the electronic book reader the Sony Reader, and a group of 32 US professors of law and economics, have filed briefs supporting the deal.

その声明でによると,法務省はその合意に対して修正を多く求めすぎであり,
その合意の関係性を崩しかねない.

In its filing, the Justice Department proposed a number of changes to the agreement that it said would help address its concerns.

それは将来のどうなるかわからない規格に対する制限の強制が含まれている.
規格とはライセンス,無名著作権への追加保護,海外の著者や出版社の関係だ.

They included imposing limitations on the most open-ended provisions for future licensing, providing additional protections for unknown rights holders and addressing the concerns of foreign authors and publishers.

法務省はさらにGoogleの競争相手が同様の本のリソースにアクセスできるようにしようとしている.

The Justice Department also proposed setting up a mechanism by which Google's competitors can gain comparable access to book collections.

「この合意は現在出版されていない数多くの本に息吹を与える可能性がある」と法務省は答える

“The Proposed Settlement has the potential to breathe life into millions of works that are now effectively off limits to the public,” the department said.

「しかし,その合意の,とくに将来的に起こりうるビジネスに対して,法に触れる」

“Nonetheless, the breadth of the Proposed Settlement – especially the forward-looking business arrangements it seeks to create – raises significant legal concerns.”

該省は,この合意はGoogleに独占的な承認権を認めることになる.
著作権不明の本や,海外の著作権に関してだ.

The department said that presently, the settlement would give Google sole authority over so-called “orphan works” – books whose copyright holder cannot be found – and books by foreign rightsholders.

法務省によると,この合意が独占禁止法に触れるかどうかの調査では,
「完全ではない」という結果だった.
しかし関係が無いわけではない.

The Justice Department said its investigation into whether the settlement violated US anti-trust provisions was “not yet complete”, but it did express concerns.

「該省の視点では,この合意は2つ重要な問題がある」
「一つは,本を集約ことに対してだ.
この合意では出版社に価格競争を抑える力を与えてしまう」

“In the view of the Department, the Proposed Settlement raises two serious issues,” it said. “First, through collective action, the Proposed Settlement appears to give book publishers the power to restrict price competition.

「二つ目は,この合意の結果,
他の電子情報提供者がGoogleと競争することが不可能になってしまうかもしれない.
電子ライブラリ製品と,その他派生した製品においてだ.」

“Second, as a result of the Proposed Settlement, other digital distributors may be effectively precluded from competing with Google in the sale of digital library products and other derivative products to come,” it said.

一週間前,米著作権団体トップは,この合意による本の取り扱いが
「著作権の根本となる仕組み」を揺るがすと言及した.

A week earlier, the head of the US Copyright Office argued that the book deal violated “fundamental copyright principles”.

米特許庁Marybeth Petersは,
「この合意によって,Googleが著作権保持者を探したり,彼らの合意を集めることが自由になり,
義務などまったく不要にするだろう」

Marybeth Peters, the US Register of Copyrights, said the settlement “absolves Google of the need to search for the rights holders or obtain their prior consent and provides a complete release from liability.

「これは数多くの国内外著作権保持者の独占権にも影響するだろう.
彼らが将来新しい製品や新しい市場をコントロールする能力を持った場合だ」

“It could affect the exclusive rights of millions of copyright owners, in the United States and abroad, with respect to their abilities to control new products and new markets, for years and years to come,” she said.

法関連は訳しにくい...今回はいつも以上に意訳です.

星の数ほどある書籍の情報量はwebとは比較にならないほど多いらしく,
googleが欲しがるのも当然なのでしょう.

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